How Milwaukee Shook Off a Rust

The expostulate into Milwaukee once offering a unconditional perspective of a American industrial apocalypse.

Abandoned factories and ebbing smokestacks expel shadows over rusting rail yards, weed-choked lots, heaps of junked automobiles and tiny plateau of sand, spark and salt. The fragrance from a slaughterhouses, a vast coal-fired appetite plant and, especially, a leavening bureau wafted adult to a traffic, while rubbish from a century and a half of tanning leather, pouring steel and butchering beasts seeped into a tide below. Once a violence heart of this good industrial city, a Menomonee River Valley had become, in a difference of a mid-1980s Milwaukee Journal reporter, “an ugly, rust-colored lesion on a city’s midsection.”

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Fast-forward dual decades and Wisconsin’s many manifest distortion is hardly recognizable. Down in a hollow floor—four miles prolonged and a half-mile wide—cyclists spin down a Hank Aaron State Trail, while facile propagandize classes watch good blue herons collect their approach by a marshes. Salmon and steelhead fish run adult a tide in tumble and open respectively. Kids play on soccer fields, while adults play games of possibility in a Potawatomi tribe’s $450 million casino, a 21-story high potion and steel hotel building looking down on rebuilt streets, viaducts and landscaping and a $75 million Harley-Davidson Museum, now one of a city’s biggest traveller attractions.

Most impressive, though, is a industry: hactare on hactare of new prolongation buildings designed to greatfully a New Urbanist as good as a corporate shareholder. There’s a North American domicile of a Spanish breeze appetite member maker, an Italian manufacturer of solar prohibited H2O heaters, and a French blender of teas; a steel wire-making plant; a neo-Italianate façade of a internal family’s quarter-million retard feet pizza bureau that employs hundreds from a neighborhoods adult on a bluffs to a south, many of who can transport to work over an appealing lonesome walking bridge. Century-old tanneries still heal hides in section buildings along a river, while a internal microbrewery is putting a finishing touches on a new plant-and-tavern in a converted Victorian-era spark gasification plant. One-hundred and twenty-five businesses work in a Valley, contracting some-more than 16.000, some-more than twice as many as many as 20 years ago.

“You had a city penetrating on gripping and attracting manufacturers who were unfortunate in areas of residential or blurb encroachment, and was peaceful to put them right in a center,” says Christopher De Sousa, executive of a School of Urban and Regional Planning during Ryerson University in Toronto, who complicated Milwaukee’s effort. “It’s place-making that’s celebrating where things is made.”

While many cities have sought to repurpose their aged industrial zones into hip condos, restaurants or blurb lofts for tech companies—or simply strike them down—Milwaukee has invested in resurrecting a own, with heated planning, new infrastructure and harsh pattern standards. In a process, a bloc of open officials, village activists and manufacturers have combined a indication for a 21st century industrial park, where manufacturing, distraction and environmentally-friendly engineered landscapes co-exist. Milwaukee is during work requesting a lessons schooled in a circuitously pier district and in a 30th Street industrial mezzanine several miles to a north.

“Having purify air, a purify river, and bike trails doesn’t daunt courtesy during all,” says John Norquist, Milwaukee’s mayor from 1988 to 2004, when a Menomonee Valley skeleton were drafted and put into motion. “You don’t have to emanate a Hell on Earth around them to make money. They like purify atmosphere and foliage as well.”


There was copiousness of purify atmosphere and foliage in a hollow in 1795, when a Quebecois fur merchant Jacques Vieau built his shed in a hollow in 1795, apropos a initial Euro-American proprietor of what is now Greater Milwaukee. Nestled between what were afterwards many aloft bluffs, a hollow building was filled with marsh, ponds and furious rice thickets, and Vieau’s mother-in-law’s people, a Potawatomi, harvested rice, medicinal plants and diversion of all sorts from their anniversary villages along a rim. “It was like a pharmacy and a grocery store and a approach to make a vital rolled together,” says Jeff Crawford, a tribe’s profession general.

Vieau bought a Potawatomi hunters’ pelts, that could be simply ecstatic a mile down a Menomonee to Lake Michigan and hence all a approach behind to Montreal and a wider world. The tie of a Menomonee, Milwaukee, and Kinnickinnic rivers was a best healthy bay on a lake’s whole western shore—90 miles closer to a world’s sea routes than a Chicago River to a south, a fact that finished a widespread of a city here roughly inevitable. Commerce brought settlers; settlers drew farmers; farming prolongation fostered stockyards, breweries, toolmakers and foundries. The Potawatomi were swayed to give adult their Upper Great Lakes territories in a 1830s and many were deported to apart Nebraska and Kansas around a impetus famous as a Trail of Death, yet there were exceptions. “Our rope refused to move, stayed in Wisconsin and hid in a woods,” says Crawford, whose rope perceived emperor approval as a Forest County Potawatomi. “Over a decades we were pushed into a remotest areas of a state where there was reduction strike with white people.” They wouldn’t lapse to Milwaukee until 1990, planting a emperor beachhead that would assistance renovate a valley.

The city grew in leaps and finish by a core of a 19th century, rivaling Chicago as a mercantile collateral of a Midwest so prolonged as products changed by ships by lakes and canals rather than by rails overland. In 1862, Milwaukee was a largest wheat shipping pier on a planet, and was attracting industries to routine and build things from Midwestern resources before exporting them from a dockyards. In office of H2O power, factories and workshops widespread initial adult a Milwaukee River and then, after a Civil War, into a marshes of a Menomonee. “The reduce riverbanks became so swarming there was this vigour to retrieve some-more land,” says Milwaukee historian John Gurda. “So in 1869 they started to fill in a valley’s wetlands, by palm and horse, with a sand on a bluffs, garbage, anything they could use.” In a process, newcomer laborers lowered a northern bluffs by 60 feet, while signs seemed in low spots promotion giveaway dumps. “Here decaying potatoes and fruit, a essence of paunches and guts of animals, a exclude of beef shops and all sorts of wickedness are deposited in a mire and a skinny covering of remains and mud placed over them,” a Milwaukee Sentinel reported in 1886, by that time a hollow was already one of a many intensively grown industrial zones in a country.

Much of this enlargement was fueled by a widespread of what would eventually be called a Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad. Spreading by a Valley even before it was scrupulously filled in—the initial marks sank 30 feet into a plod a night they after they were laid—the “Milwaukee Road” connected a city with a Mississippi River in a early 1850s, a Great Plains by a 1880s and over a plateau to Seattle in 1909. This sprawling network—over 10,000 miles of track—funneled to over 100 acres of yards in a valley, including a huge Milwaukee Road workshops where 8,000 workers built and remade locomotives and rolling stock. Connected to a universe by land and lake, a hollow was, in a 1920s, home to metalworking shops, breweries, distilleries, stockyards, meatpacking plants, section yards, warehouses and America’s largest tannery, that topsy-turvy out leather from a hides of castoffs of Wisconsin’s burgeoning dairy industry. Fifty thousand people worked in a hollow any day, many nearing on feet by tunnels and opposite bridges from a neighborhoods on a valley’s rims. Viaducts soared overhead, permitting automobiles to transport between a north and south sides of a city, though never reason a hollow below.

This siege cursed a valley. As commerce shifted from rails to trucks in a postwar period. Disconnected from a city’s highway network and cut off from a north side by a construction of Interstate 94 in a 1960s, a hollow began losing industries to a suburbs, afterwards to a de-unionized American South and eventually to Mexico, China and beyond. Industries that remained competitive—high-skill metalworking, beef packing, a brewing of beer—were automating, requiring a smaller workforce that was, in any case, dispersing in automobiles to a expanding suburban fringe. The Milwaukee Road, crippled by a debts taken on by a quick Pacific expansion, stumbled from failure to failure by many of a 20th century and close down wholly in 1985.

While some industries carried on, many of a hollow had spin a no man’s land. “A lot of companies had sealed adult emporium or changed abroad or out to a suburbs and left behind a lot of empty land,” says Corey Zetts, executive executive of a Menomonee Valley Partners, a non-profit that has helped coordinate a district’s renewal. “The things that got put there was all we didn’t wish in a rest of your city: throw yards, batch yards, tanneries, spark piles, junked cars and a bingo gymnasium a city had been fighting against.”

The hollow also got cut off from a surrounding neighborhoods, as a stairs, tunnels, and bridges that workers traversed to transport to a factories subsequent fell into disrepair and were dismantled. The Near North Side, mostly African-American and stranded behind I-94, was roughly wholly severed from a hollow floor. This usually compounded a mercantile obstacles to residents of what was and still is one of a many racially segregated cities in America, and one where a decrease in prolongation strike African-Americans generally hard. (This month’s aroused disturbance after a military sharpened in Sherman Park, several miles to a north of a Menomonee Valley, has drawn renewed courtesy to a yawning event gap.)

But for a valley, fortuitously, 3 things came together during once that stirred a rethinking of what was probable for what had spin a city’s biggest brownfield site: a ball group looking for a new home, a emperor extend awarded to a far-thinking area hospital and a Potawatomi tribe’s neglected bingo hall.


In 1950, a city built a 21,000-seat County Stadium atop a former city dump during a unequivocally conduct of a Valley, and it was there that Bud Selig’s Milwaukee Brewers had been personification given he had brought a group from Seattle in 1970. Selig, a internal businessman who would after offer as commissioner of Major League Baseball, had stretched a track and fought a successful conflict opposite a state legislature’s devise to put an un-air conditioned state jail in a valley, right subsequent to a Brewers’ parking lot. (The gross site, a Brewers profession explained, would prompt prisoners to demonstration “in all probability…on a prohibited wet day when it can get a many courtesy with 50,000 people in a stadium.”) His group desperately wanted to build a new stadium, and eventually chose a parking lot subsequent doorway as a site. The group primarily pronounced it would compensate a $105-million construction costs if a city bought a land and supposing a infrastructure. In a end, it cost some-more than triple that, with taxpayers balance many of a bill.

The awaiting of a new track drew courtesy to a probable repurposing of a derelict Milwaukee Roads formidable subsequent door. The gone tyrannise was now owned by a genuine estate investment organisation called a Chicago Milwaukee Corporation, or CMC, that had let a 140-acre formidable in a hollow tumble into unlucky disrepair. “Their devise was to sell a farming land immediately, though to lay on land in cities, to guarantee to build oppulance apartments or selling centers or whatever they suspicion would excite people to change a zoning and afterwards sell a parcels for more,” says mayor Norquist, who became questionable after CMC denounced proposals for a $300 million apartment, selling and party complex. “I checked with my counterparts in Chicago an Seattle and schooled they indeed weren’t going to do anything. They usually wanted to up-zone it and sell it to us for more.” Norquist’s administration changed to seize a skill by venerable domain, call a decade-long authorised onslaught over a heart of a valley.

The doubt remained as to what to indeed do with a district. Under Norquist, a city formulation idealist who would after conduct a Congress for New Urbanism, Milwaukee intent a valley’s industrial tenants and neighbors, undertook a marketplace investigate and resolved that a best use would be to stay constant to a origins as a prolongation center, not an party district, city park or selling mall. The 1998 request identified a Milwaukee Roads skill as a tip priority, arguing it should be redeveloped as an eco-industrial park. Nobody was certain a devise wouldn’t usually finish adult on a behind shelf, alongside so many others, though a bomb success of a genealogical business on a other side of a hollow put everybody on notice that change was coming.


While a city grappled with CMC, a Potawatomi—whose reservation is located 6 hours’ expostulate to a north—had purchased a aged campus of Concordia College, an 11-acre assemblage of 19th century medieval buildings on a city’s West Side where they hoped to emanate a high-stakes bingo gymnasium that would support a genealogical propagandize and informative center. Unfortunately, area residents against a bingo partial of a plan. “So a understanding was struck with a city where we would put a bingo gymnasium someplace else,” recalls Crawford, a tribe’s tide profession general. And where, in 1987, did a city introduce to put this neglected activity? A 7.5-acre city-owned tract on a eastern finish of a Menomonee Valley, sandwiched between a coal-fired appetite plant and a vast slaughterhouse and beef make-up plant. So it was that a Potawatomi returned to a Menomonee—the name is subsequent from a word for “wild rice” in their language—converting a blighted parcel to genealogical trust domain and, in 1990, opening a $105-million bingo facility.

“There was serious spoil all around and we couldn’t transport on a streets given there was potion and steel and rabble dumped all over it,” Crawford recalls. “We clearly would have favourite to have had primary genuine estate, though that wasn’t feasible. So we were purposefully put in a place where we would not worry anybody else. Then we set to work to redevelop a place.”

The Potawatomi, located dual miles downriver from where a Brewers’ were proposing to build their stadium, began lobbying to bond a hollow with a surrounding travel grid, highways and even a hollow itself. Canal Street, a categorical artery bisecting a district, stopped median adult a valley, definition there was no approach to get directly from a sports track area to a bingo hall. There were so few roads or ramps heading into a valley—a heirloom of a car-unfriendly formulation of a early 1900s—that even longtime city residents didn’t always know how to get there. The Potawatomi’s profitable customers from Chicagoland had an even harder time. When a clan transposed a bingo gymnasium with a $120-million casino in 1998, it finished certain to put huge relief torches on a outside. “We wanted something manifest from a highway,” Crawford says, “because not even a cab drivers could find it.”

The casino business was booming, and a Potawatomi destined some of a asset to improving their surroundings. The clan helped account studies on how to extend Canal Street, became active and deep-pocketed participants in a discussions about a valley’s destiny and helped run for state appropriation for a new non-profit entity that was usually removing off a ground—the Menomonee Valley Partners, that was charged with executing a city’s prophesy for a valley. The clan also became benefactors of one of a unlikeliest of players to spearhead a formidable redevelopment effort, a village health hospital that saw cleaning adult a hollow as executive to their idea to lift a good being of their clients.


The 16th Street Community Health Center had been providing medical caring for those who couldn’t compensate for it on a city’s Near South Side given 1969. Operating out of a former valuables store in what had spin a mostly Latino neighborhood, a medical staff had been recording towering lead levels in roughly 40 percent of a children it tested. This led to an Environmental Protection Agency-funded bid to exam and scold lead paint issues in homes and apartments in a mid-1990s that cut cases by 90 percent and capitalized on a trust and contacts a clinic’s doctors and Spanish-speaking overdo staff had developed. This got a courtesy of a Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, that partnered with a hospital on another EPA-funded devise to brand and clean-up infested industrial sites widespread by a neighborhood. Their informants flagged countless complicated sites, including an aged tannery where kids played by day and by night people burnt aged film t o collect a zinc and other snippet metals.

“We had to blockade off a skill and send people in moon suits,” recalls Peter McAvoy, a clinic’s longtime environmental health director. “The neighbors were like: What about us? We played there when we were kids and now are kids are there and we can’t go nearby it though those suits!” Such projects compulsory a extraordinary operation of expertise, resources and coordination to remediate, that got McAvoy and his colleagues meditative it would be a lot some-more fit to take them on during a many incomparable scale. Their clients indispensable places protected places to play, practice and work and fewer sources of pollution.

“So we said: given don’t we go into a Valley? It was a largest brownfield site in Wisconsin and one of a many visible,” McAvoy says. “That’s when we orderly a initial charrette.”

Charrette is a French word for wagon, and in a architectural universe it refers to a robe of students during Paris’s Ecole des Beaux-Arts to work on their models in a carts holding them to their presentations. In complicated parlance, it’s a lightning pattern workshop—often finished pro bono—where architects, planners and stakeholders come together to brainstorm a pattern resolution that’s acceptable to all. Nearly 100 architects and planners responded to a health center’s 1999 call to reason a seminar for a Menomonee Valley during a University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The ensuing plans, presented days after during a tony Wisconsin Club, featured a accumulation of ideas, from sell to complicated manufacturing, all wise within a city’s extended 1998 devise for a area. “What was transparent was that a existent tyrannise yards could be consolidated, creation room for all sorts of possibilities,” McAvoy recalls. “This got people talking…and got us thinking: How can we take it to a subsequent spin and get somebody to indeed come in and pattern one of these concepts?”

McAvoy flew to Washington and presented some of a many earnest concepts to extend officers at, of all places, a National Endowment for a Arts. “They said, ‘This is unequivocally interesting, though we don’t do that stuff,’” McAvoy says. “And we said: This is a possibility for we to bond to people in a opposite kind of way, civic pattern as art.” The representation worked, agreeable a $50,000 extend toward a holding of a inhabitant pattern foe to strength out a sum of how to reconstruct a Milwaukee Road property.

NEA’s taciturn publicity went a prolonged approach toward convincing non-Wisconsin donors and designers that a village health hospital could spearhead a 140-acre civic redevelopment effort. Larry Witzling, an pattern highbrow during a University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, had run inhabitant pattern competitions and took a helm. “The hardest partial of a foe was that there wasn’t any good geographical bottom information for a valley,” he recalls. “Nobody had a sketch that showed where a columns of a viaducts landed. It was unequivocally a lost behind alley of a community.” Twenty-five firms from around a universe submitted skeleton for a 2002 contest.

The winning design, from Denver’s Wenk Associates, has served as a template for a growth of a western partial of a valley: an industrial park that integrates recreational facilities and a “working” landscape of inundate control and pollution-cleaning parks, all built with sustainable, New Urbanist pattern standards. The final plan, authorized by a city legislature in 2003, enclosed pursuit quotas for a prolongation sites: 22 jobs per acre, any profitable a vital salary reckoned during a time to be $12 an hour. “We didn’t wish 4 forklift operators operative in a 120,000-square-foot warehouse,” says David Misky, a brownfields consultant during a city’s Redevelopment Authority. “The skill taxes would be fine, though a rest of it, not so much.”

The city could collect and select who and what happened during a site in 2003 given it had finally seized it from CMC by venerable domain—“a accessible condemnation,” Misky calls it. “We could have sole a whole devise out in a integrate of years if we weren’t picky, though it’s taken us about 10 years to find a right brew of developments that we could feel good about,” he says. “But we indispensable a assistance of mixed groups to do a complicated lifting—the corporate zone to invest, a non-profits to assistance make a tie with a neighborhoods. It’s some-more than a city could do on a own.”


Like so many other successful projects opposite a country—in Cincinnati, Denver, Des Moines, and Philadelphia to name a few—the Menomonee Valley’s rebirth compulsory a public-private partnership. The car for this was a tiny non-profit, a Menomonee Valley Partners, with 4 employees and a house separate between hollow firms, open officials, deputy from a adjacent neighborhoods and at-large members from serve afield. The Partners fostered relationships, recruited businesses and even stepped in a few times to buy pivotal properties. They perceived gifts from private foundations, companies and philanthropists. But their many vicious early appropriation came in a form of a singular $750,000 allocation from a state bill earmarked from casino income pity supports around a change of a Potawatomi. “Without them, this decisively would not have happened,” says Zetts, a non-profit’s executive director.

These supports authorised a Menomonee Valley Partners to buy an aged salt yard during a eastern finish of a Valley from Morton Salts, combine it with a city-owned lot subsequent door, and sell it during a distinction to Harley-Davidson, that built a 130,000-squre feet museum on a site. The partnership also grown a 140,000-square feet building subsequent to a slaughterhouses in a executive partial of a hollow that became home to a solar row manufacturer and a copy company. “We wanted to make certain a area was used for prolongation and not storage, that is what everybody wanted to do down here,” Zetts says.

Luck played a purpose in executing a devise for a Milwaukee Roads site, that indispensable 8 or some-more feet of fill to lift it above a inundate plain before it could be developed. In 2004, a state was rebuilding an huge highway rotate over a northeastern partial of a valley, displacing scarcely a billion cubic yards of fill. Instead of trucking it out of a city, trucks widespread it over a 140-acre site, lifting a parcels to developable heights and with adequate leftover to erect 3 hills in a midst of what would spin Three Bridges Park. “These got done to resemble a freezing topography that was here before a tyrannise came and tore it all down,” Zetts says. “It’s all easy again now, though it’s unequivocally going to upset a geologists who puncture around here in a 24th century.” In a meantime, a city extended Canal Street to a western half of a Valley and rebuilt a Sixth Street Viaduct so that it dipped down to class in front of a Harley-Davidson Museum, unexpected formulating easy entrance to a area from downtown. A city train track began using adult a hollow alongside a new Hank Aaron State Trail, that hikers and cyclists could now follow from Lake Michigan to a Mississippi.

The city was building it, though would they come? In City Hall, officials anxiously awaited a initial pioneer.


A few blocks south of a Valley on Maple Street, Giacoma Fallucca and his brothers were drowning in pizzas.

The family’s Palermo Villa solidified pizza firm—founded by their Sicilian newcomer parents—had grown by leaps and finish in a 1990s, and notwithstanding expanding over an whole city retard and to a leased satellite trickery in Chicago, was ripping during a seams. Their 12,000-squre-foot freezer was usually vast adequate to conduct their tender materials and tide prolongation during a bureau in a residential area that ran day and night. “Every pizza we finished went right on a lorry and out to a placement center,” he recalls. “It was to a indicate where we were not drum to be means to furnish all a pizzas we had in demand, and a initial word out of new retailers’ mouths were ‘Can we hoop a volume?’ We had to do something fast.”

The Falluccas wanted to stay in a city, where they’d been innate and lifted and had 200 learned and constant employees. But retrofitting any of a buildings on a marketplace to accommodate U.S. Department of Agriculture mandate was subsequent to impossible. “We were desperate,” Fallucca saus. “My hermit pronounced he couldn’t do this many longer, so went to a city.” City Development Commissioner Rocky Marcoux suggested Fallucca cruise building on a 13-acre site during a Milwaukee Road site, that trucks were in a routine of covering in 8 to 12 feet of dirt. “We immediately suspicion it was a good idea,” Fallucca says. “It was right in a core of a city, within 5 miles of many of a employees’ homes, with copiousness of space and infrastructure all around us.”

Palermo’s bought a skill and a year after non-stop a state-of-the-art, 125,000-square-foot pizza factory, finish with corporate offices, a pizzeria and open tours. The association defended a 200 city employees, and dozens some-more who relocated when it sealed a Chicago plant. The Milwaukee plant has given doubled in size, contracting 700—many from a Near South Side—who collectively shake out half a million pizzas any day. “The city people were observant we took a possibility on them, though we didn’t really,” Fallucca says. “We indispensable it. It was a prefect location. The usually risk for us was that a fill wouldn’t get trucked here in time for us to finish building a plant quick enough.”

With an anchor landowner in place, a new walking overpass using opposite a tide to a Near South Side, and copiousness of glossy new infrastructure, a manufacturers continued arriving: Badger Railing, a builder of spin stairs and outside railings; Derse, a builder of high-tech trade uncover displays; steel products organisation Charter Wire; Italian solar H2O heater builder Caleffi. The Potawatomi stretched a casino for a third time in 2008, afterwards built a hotel in 2012, bringing a tribe’s investment in a hollow to scarcely $600 million.

By now, a Menomonee had generated hum distant afield. In 2009, Ingeteam, a Bilbao, Spain-based manufacturer of breeze and solar appetite components, looked during hundreds of sites opposite a U.S. to build a North American prolongation line. “We wanted to be in a place in a core of a nation with entrance to a competent supply sequence and labor pool, and Milwaukee had this birthright in appetite and control systems that finished it unequivocally attractive,” says Aitor Sotes, CEO of a firm’s U.S. subsidiary. “And a site itself was something we loved, as was being a partial of an bid to make a site go from brownish-red to green, if we will.” Ingeteam chose a valley, where it now has 167 employees operative in a 138,500-foot bureau opposite a travel from a lonesome walking overpass joining a Near South Side with a Valley’s new 24-acre park.

Shortly after Ingeteam changed in, construction crews were during work on a other side of a walking bridge, converting an aged pub into a new bend of a Urban Ecology Center, a Milwaukee non-profit that had resurrected uneasy parks elsewhere in a city, creation them into outside classrooms for area open schools. Now a Menomonee Valley Partners had assured them to try to do a same for a valley, and assistance them spin what were afterwards piles of fill and construction waste into a good park and inlet preparation resource. They move a solid tide of kids to a Menomonee’s banks, from kindergarteners training their colors to eighth graders intent in ecological experiments. “Most of a work focuses on a biological life that’s entrance behind into a area,” says bend executive Glenna Holstein. “It’s unequivocally critical for kids and adults to know that inlet isn’t usually something ‘out there,’ though partial of a village and a city’s identity.”

Today a Milwaukee Roads growth has usually one parcel left and has already met a altogether practice idea of usually over 1,300 new jobs. More than 40 companies have changed into or stretched in a wider valley, with a million retard feet of immature buildings constructed, and over $1 billion invested given 2000.

“They managed to fill a place adult during a recession,” says Ryerson University’s De Sousa. “Everything has spin a jubilee of this new, tolerable industrial district.”

Colin Woodard is a Politico Magazine contributing editor, a author of a recently expelled American Character: A History of a Epic Struggle Between Individual Liberty and a Common Good and a finalist for a 2016 Pulitzer Prize in Explanatory Reporting for his work during Maine’s Portland Press Herald.

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